This is a modern skull with its horns of the Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) which is abundant in East Africa. There are several subspecies of this buffalo that are found further west and south. Cape buffalo are predominantly grazers and live in highly variable herd sizes. They prefer denser woodland habitats and need to drink daily, therefore are always near perenial water bodies.
The Bovini are the largest and heaviest of the bovidae, with horns present in both males and females.
From the fossil depostis of the Turkana Basin, dental remains that are comparable in size to the modern Cape buffalo, have been recovered. However there are also three larger extinct species of Bovini known from the fossil deposits of the Turkana Basin. These are Pelerovis olduwayensis, Pelerovis turkanensis, Simatherium cf. kohlarsoni.